Publication of two volumes of an international authoritative reference book on cognitive science (brain function studies) in the prevention and treatment of addiction
Ekhtiari and Paulus: Neuroscience for Addiction Medicine: From Prevention to Rehabilitation (First Edition)
Volume I (223): Constructs and Drugs
Volume II (224): Methods and Interventions
Progress for Brain Research Book/Journal Series, Elsevier
37 Chapters by Distinguished Authors from 90 Institutes around the Globe For Both Basic Scientists and Healthcare Professionals Who Are Interested to See How Neuroscience Shapes Future of Addiction Medicine
Neuroscience, which is simply the study of the nervous system, has involved many researchers from various fields such as chemistry, cognitive science, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, genetics, philosophy, physics, psychology, etc. The development of imaging and neural stimulation technologies and computational methods in recent years has created a revolution in neuroscience studies and has significantly increased the speed of progress of this knowledge and consequently the number of articles and books published in this field. It can be said that the most reliable “Book Series” in the field of neuroscience (study of the brain), with an age of over 50 years and an impact factor (IF) of over 5, is Progress in Brain Research (PBR) or “Progress in brain studies. This series of books is published by Elsevier Publishing, one of the oldest collections in publishing articles and books in the field of neuroscience. The main objectives of this series of books, which have remained unchanged since the publication of the first issue in 1963 AD (1341 AD), are as follows:
- Registering the latest content on a specific topic in the field of neuroscience
- Presenting the latest results of research conducted on this topic
- Providing promising directions for future research
During these years, the position of these series of books has been strongly established as a simple platform for documenting the current developments in brain research. Some issues of these book series have been extracted from very important international symposia, and in some issues, well-known professors and experts in the field are invited to write original or review articles. The strict editing done on these books guarantees the satisfaction of all audiences active in brain studies in research and clinical fields and with different specialties of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuropathology, basic neurology, biological psychology and behavioral sciences. So far, during the 52 years of this collection, 222 books have been published. The last two issues of this series of books (Nos. 223 and 224) are focused on the discussion of neuroscience in addiction medicine and examine this issue in detail from various aspects. The editors of these two issues are Dr. Hamed Al-Okhti (Head of the Neurocognitive Laboratory of the National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and member of the academic staff of the Research Institute of Cognitive Sciences) and Dr. Martin Paulos (Professor at the University of California in San Diego and Head of the Laureate Institute for Brain Studies in America). are.
The initial steps to write this book have been started since Mehr 1392. After the decision-making council of PBR approved the proposal presented by the editors of this book, invitations were sent to more than 40 internationally recognized professors from 90 universities and different research institutes in 14 countries of the world from the editors of the book, and finally a book consisting of 37 chapters with more than 120 authors in two volumes were prepared in Mehr 1394 and were published at the end of February 1394 and distributed globally. The first volume (No. 223) is mainly focused on the neuro-cognitive infrastructures involved in the development of the disease of addiction, and the second volume (No. 224) is focused on neuroscience methods and interventions in the future of addiction medicine.
Statistics show that more than 246 million people worldwide (that is, more than 5% of the adult population) used illegal drugs last year. More than ten percent of these people become addicted to drugs, and the number of drug-related deaths is estimated at 187,000 people every year! Addiction in our society is also a deep medical-social problem, and without a doubt, addiction medicine is one of the few scientific fields in the country that has a real and interactive knowledge market between supply and demand. The application of cognitive science and technology in this field to improve the quality of life of patients and develop preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions in addiction medicine is one of the practical goals and research and work priorities of the Steering Staff for the Development of Cognitive Science and Technology of the Vice-Chancellor for Science and Technology. Considering the great importance of this issue in the country, the headquarters supports the studies conducted in relation to the better identification of the roots of addiction (at all levels from molecular to behavioral-phenomenological) and providing evidence-based solutions for measurement, prevention, monitoring, management and rehabilitation. .
Different cognitive technologies, including neuroimaging and brain stimulation, are very important in different dimensions of addiction medicine, from diagnosis to rehabilitation and treatment. In order to create research infrastructures in imaging and brain stimulation studies and processing all types of brain data and providing specialized services in these fields, the National Brain Mapping Laboratory (NBML) has been established and equipped with the support of the Development Headquarters of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies. This laboratory is equipped with a complete and unique collection of the most advanced imaging, measurement, stimulation and analysis devices for brain mapping studies and it is hoped that it can be a great help to researchers in this field in the country.
The fact is that the existing interventions in the field of addiction, from prevention to rehabilitation, need serious evolution in terms of efficiency. Neuroscience knowledge has made enormous progress in understanding basic neural processes; But regarding the use of neuroscience methods in clinical medicine and specifically in “addiction medicine”, there is still a lot of room for improvement. In this regard, the aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive view of the gaps and possible paths ahead for researchers in the field of addiction. The main topic in this book is “a look at the current state of neuroscience in addiction with a focus on potential clinical applications”. The fundamental question covered in these two volumes is: “How can neuroscience be used to make a serious and real difference in addiction medicine?” For this purpose, the editors of this book requested the visiting professors to perform the following activities in the subject and for each chapter of the book:
1- review the available studies in the last five to ten years;
2- To identify gaps in current knowledge that prevent existing knowledge from entering clinical applications;
3- Determine the path towards which the field is moving and state what are the important questions that must be answered in order to make a practical change in addiction medicine.
The main addressees of this book are people active in the clinical and research fields of addiction medicine and neuroscience. By reading this book, they will be aware of the most up-to-date evidence in different areas of brain studies in a wide range of addictive disorders. It is hoped that the information contained in this book will be a starting point for new researchers who will help strengthen the connection between basic neuroscience and clinical addiction medicine.
Six chapters of these two volumes have been written in cooperation between domestic experts and researchers in different universities of the country and internationally known researchers from famous universities in the world. In the first volume of the book, the second chapter (focused on neurotoxicity caused by substances, in collaboration with the National Center for Addiction Studies of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Cognitive Sciences Research Institute and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH)), the fifth chapter (focused on science The nerves of attention processes in addiction, in collaboration with Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, the National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and Bangor University, England) and the seventh chapter (presenting a new model of craving for substances, in collaboration with the National Center for Addiction Studies, University of Sciences Tehran Medical Center, Research Institute of Cognitive Sciences and University of Southern California, USA) were written. In the second volume of the book, the seventh chapter (with the subject of functional neuroimaging in addiction, in collaboration with the National Center for Addiction Studies of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the Research Institute of Cognitive Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, and the Laurite Brain Research Institute of America), the sixteenth chapter (with the subject of neurocognitive rehabilitation as a complementary treatment in addiction, in collaboration with the National Center for Addiction Studies of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the Research Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Yale University in America) and the seventeenth chapter (focused on non-invasive brain stimulation in addiction, in collaboration with the National Center for Addiction Studies of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Research Institute of Cognitive Sciences, Harvard Medical University, USA and University of Minho, Portugal) have been written. In particular, the seventh and seventeenth chapters of the second volume are focused on the application of cognitive technologies in addiction medicine.
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This book has two volumes and each volume has two parts in 17 chapters. Those interested can read the summary of the topics presented in different chapters of the book below:
The first volume of the book has two parts. In the first part of the first volume, the neuroscience infrastructure for addiction medicine is discussed. The first chapter discusses vulnerability to addiction (in terms of genetic, behavioral, etc. bases).
Neurotoxicity caused by substances is examined in the second chapter, and topics such as the mechanisms of neurotoxicity, effective factors in this process, and strategies to prevent it are covered in this chapter.
In the third chapter, about the psychobiology of stress in addiction and specifically about stress response systems, the role of stress as a factor in creating vulnerability in the creation and continuation of addiction, stress as a factor in relapse, the impact of stress in behavioral addictions and its role in The cycle of addiction is discussed.
In the fourth chapter, the strengthening principles in addiction medicine have been investigated. In this chapter, first, positive and negative reinforcement and conditional and secondary reinforcement are introduced; Then the study of this concept using animal models is discussed and the connection of this concept with addiction is explained.
In the fifth chapter, the topic of attention processes in addiction medicine is covered. In this chapter, the clinical importance of attentional bias is discussed first. In the continuation of attention retraining, treatment solutions related to attention bias, relevant drug interventions and the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies in this field are described.
In the sixth chapter, the topic of learning and memory in addiction medicine is described. This chapter begins with an introduction about learning and memory in addiction, and then the changes that occur in learning and memory due to the phenomenon of addiction are discussed with an emphasis on associative learning, habit formation and acting on habits. Then, it has been discussed which methods can be used to target the memory and learning systems for the treatment of addiction. In this regard, methods such as re-establishment and reintroduction of goal-directed behaviors are introduced and special considerations that should be taken into account when using them are described.
In the seventh chapter, the foundations of the craving phenomenon from the perspective of neuroscience have been discussed. In this chapter, the existing models for craving, as a basic component in addiction, are reviewed, its neuro-cognitive bases are examined from the point of view of regions and brain networks, and then a new neuro-cognitive model is presented, the concept of craving as a dynamic phenomenon. It is included in it. Finally, neuro-cognitive interventions in the processes related to craving have been reviewed.
In the eighth chapter, the phenomenon of response inhibition in addiction medicine has been investigated. Some of the tasks of response inhibition, the neurobiology of control, response inhibition for various substances such as nicotine, alcohol, and cocaine, and response inhibition during abstinence are topics covered in this chapter.
The ninth chapter examines the neuroscience foundations of inhibition and how response inhibition tasks can be used to better identify the problem of addiction and predict clinical outcomes in drug-dependent individuals.
The second part of the first volume, which examines different addictive substances and behaviors separately and in more detail, begins with chapter ten. This chapter focuses on nicotine and smoking addiction. The phases of nicotine dependence, the neural circuits involved in the development of this dependence and the relevant neurochemical bases are described.
In the eleventh chapter, we talk about alcohol dependence, its effects on brain hardware and software, that is, separate brain structures such as the hippocampus, cerebellum, insula, white matter structures of the brain, as well as various cognitive functions such as working memory, inhibitory control, decision making, and reward processing.
In the twelfth chapter, it is focused on drug addiction from different dimensions.
The thirteenth chapter deals with a more extensive description of drug addiction, including discussions related to animal models to the approval of the US Food and Drug Administration for alcohol addiction.
The fourteenth chapter begins with the introduction of the theory of competitive neuro-behavioral decision systems and then describes the relationship of this theory with cocaine and its treatment.
In the 15th chapter, the basics of neuroscience of addiction to amphetamine-type stimulants are discussed, from the topics of basic science to the development of treatment methods for it.
In the 16th chapter, behavioral addictions have been investigated. The chapter starts with the introduction of gambling disorder and then explains the neurological basis of this disorder. In the following, it is described about the genetics and drug and behavioral treatments of this disorder. Other disorders discussed in this chapter in terms of their neurological, genetic, and therapeutic bases are Internet addiction and Internet gaming.
The 17th chapter focuses on obesity as an addiction disorder. In this chapter, the common neural bases between this disorder and substance dependence disorder and their differences are discussed.
The second volume of the book also has two parts. In the first part, various methods available in the field of neurosciences that have been used in addiction medicine have been investigated. The first chapter of the second volume introduces and describes the types of animal models in addiction medicine.
In the second chapter, animal models have been examined from the point of view of relapse and craving. In this chapter, relapse models based on silence and prudent relapse models are described separately and in detail.
In the third chapter, computational modeling methods used in addiction medicine are introduced. Various tasks and related models and the use of these models on clinical populations including substance dependent individuals are introduced in this chapter.
In the fourth chapter of electrophysiology of addiction medicine, the current state of knowledge in this field, relevant tools and the way forward are introduced.
The fifth chapter examines neuro-cognitive rehabilitation in addiction medicine and the evidence presented about its applications in alcohol dependence and other types of addiction.
In the sixth chapter, the applications and knowledge obtained from structural imaging tools in addiction medicine have been investigated depending on the type of substances and the age of people.
Functional imaging (fMRI) is discussed in Chapter 7. The main cognitive targets in functional imaging studies for addiction medicine are introduced and then the applications of resting fMRI in addiction medicine are described. In the following, the types of fMRI studies available on substance dependent population are divided into four main categories and each category is described. The uses of fMRI in addiction medicine are categorized and explained in five categories: prediction, monitoring, planning, aggregation and awareness. At the end, the main challenges in fMRI studies in the field of addiction medicine are stated.
In the eighth chapter, the analysis of functional connections between different brain regions based on fMRI data has been introduced in addiction medicine.
Topics related to the use of PET imaging technology for addiction medicine are covered in the ninth chapter.
The tenth chapter examines the genetic bases of addiction in detail using genetic imaging tools.
The second part of the second volume focuses on the types of interventions available in addiction medicine. This section begins with the eleventh chapter and the topic of drug therapy in addiction medicine, which is one of the oldest and most widely used interventional methods in this field. In this chapter, the use of drug therapy for alcohol dependence in different phases of dependence, nicotine, narcotics, cocaine, methamphetamine and some other substances is discussed.
The twelfth chapter introduces new targets in the field of neuropharmacology of addiction medicine, including receptors, enzymes, neuropeptides, etc.
In the thirteenth chapter, cognitive interventions have been introduced in the field of addiction medicine. In this chapter, various types of cognitive interventions including behavioral, restraint, emotional regulation, neurofeedback, etc. have been introduced.
In the fourteenth chapter, the topic of psychotherapy for addiction medicine in adolescents is discussed. Issues such as the relationship between adolescent brain development and addiction and neuro-cognitive responses to various interventions including family therapy, motivational interviews, cognitive behavioral therapy, etc. have been investigated and discussed in this chapter.
In the 15th chapter, cognitive neuroscience is discussed in the cognitive retraining of drug addicts. At first, the correction of cognitive bias, its mechanisms and the conditions that must exist to get answers from this method have been discussed. Then, the development of two-process models is discussed, and in the following, solutions are introduced to improve the correction of attention bias.
In the 16th chapter, the perspectives of neuro-cognitive rehabilitation as a complementary treatment for substance dependence disorders are presented. In this chapter, potential cognitive goals for rehabilitation, including memory and learning, movement actions, emotional and social processes, attention and working memory, impulsivity, restraint and self-control and some other executive actions are introduced. Then a variety of cognitive rehabilitation treatment methods including strategy training, metacognition training, physical exercises, etc. have been introduced. The effectiveness of these neuro-cognitive rehabilitation methods in addiction has been reviewed and solutions have been presented to provide the logic of this type of treatment to drug dependent patients. At the end, the principles of cognitive rehabilitation for substance dependence and the challenges in this field are stated.
In the last chapter, various types of applications of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies, including transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation, have been investigated in addiction medicine. These applications are divided and described in two categories: “Evaluation of neural and chemical flexibility” and “Therapy”. The chapter is concluded by providing explanations about the future application of these technologies in addiction medicine.
Neuroscience has made tremendous progress towards understanding basic neural processes, however, there is still a lot of progress to be made in utilizing neuroscience approaches in clinical medicine in general and addiction medicine in particular. These two volumes (223 and 224) of 37 review chapters attempt to provide the current status of the field of neuroscience of addiction with particular emphasis on potential applications in a clinical setting. The fundamental question that is addressed in these volumes is “how can neuroscience be used to make a real difference in addiction medicine”? Over 120 contributors from 90 institutes at 14 countries identified current gaps in our knowledge that contribute to the limited impact of the area of research to clinical practice and provide a perspective where the field is heading and how impactful question can be addressed to change the practice of addiction medicine. We envision that both neuroscientists and clinical investigators with interests to application of neuroscience approaches in studies to assess or treat individuals with addictive disorders will be the primary audience of these two volumes. The hope is that information provided in the series chapters will trigger new researches that will help to connect basic neuroscience to clinical addiction medicine.